Podolia is traversed by a railway which runs parallel to the Dniester, from Lemberg to Odessa, and has two branch lines, to Kiev (from Zhmerinka) and to Poltava (from Balta).
The principal towns of Austria are Vienna (1,662,269), Prague (460,849), Trieste (132,879), Lemberg (159,618), Graz (138,370), Bruenn (108,944), Cracow (91,310), Czernowitz (67,622), Pilsen (68,292) and Linz (58,778).
Industrially and commercially Lemberg is the most important city in Galicia, its industries including the manufacture of machinery and iron wares, matches, stearin candles and naphtha, arrack and liqueurs, chocolate, chicory, leather and plaster of Paris, as well as brewing, corn-milling and brick and tile making..
In the eastern Carpathians are: the Dukla pass, the Mezo-Laborcz pass crossed by the railway from Tokaj to Przemysl; the Uszok pass, crossed by the road from Ungvar to Sambor; the Vereczke pass, crossed by the railway from Lemberg to Munkacs; the Delatyn or Korosmezo pass (3300 ft.), also called the Magyar route, crossed by the railway from Kolomea to Debreczen; and the Stiol pass in Bukovina.
Two years later the same traitors again conspired against the king, at the very time when the Turks had defeated Sobieski's unsupported lieutenant, Luzecki, at Czertwertyworska and captured the fortress of Kamieniec (KamenetzPodolskiy), the key of south-eastern Poland, while Lemberg was only saved by the valour of Elias Lancki.
In Lemberg is the National Institute founded by Count Ossolinski, which contains a library of books and manuscripts relating chiefly to the history and literature of Poland, valuable antiquarian and scientific collections, and a printing establishment; also the Dzieduszycki museum with collections of natural history and ethnography relating chiefly to Galicia.
The four centres of Polish literature, which, in spite of the attempts which have been made to denationalize the country, is fairly active, are Cracow, Posen, Lemberg and Warsaw.