The bases of priestly power under this system are the unity of the altar, its inaccessibility to laymen and to the inferior ministers of the sanctuary, and the specific atoning functions of the blood of priestly sacrifices.
However, instances of men elevated at once from the condition of laymen to the priesthood were known in the early church, and Chardon (Hist.
Blosius's works, which were written in Latin, have been translated into almost every European language, and have appealed not only to Roman Catholics, but to many English laymen of note, such as W.
The PseudoIsidorian idea being that all lay control over things ecclesiastical is wrong, all transferences by laymen of ecclesiastical offices or benefices, even though no money changed hands in the process, were now classed as simony (Humbert, Adversus Simoniacos, 1057-1058).
The first class, after submission, were absolved from their irregularity, and, receiving penance, were reinstated; the second class were simply regarded as laymen and dismissed without penance or absolution.
The evangelical movement had produced philanthropists like Wilberforce and Granville Sharp, and the Eclectic Society, a group of clergy and laymen who fell to discussing the new missionary movements.
To clerics and laymen from episcopal excommunications is extended.
On the 8th of March 1372 Wykeham resigned the chancellorship, and Bishop Brantingham of Exeter the treasurership, and laymen were appointed in their places, though Sir Robert Thorp, who became chancellor, was master of Pembroke Hall at Cambridge, and as much a cleric as Wykeham had been when he was dean of St Martin-le-Grand and surveyor of Windsor Castle.
The fact is that the Montanists represented the conservatism of their day, and even now the Roman Church admits the right of laymen to baptize when a priest cannot be had.
Another institution treated with considerable fulness in the treatise Taanith is that of the -nyn 'th (y iri stationis), who are represented as having been laymen severally representing the twenty-four classes or families into which the whole commonwealth of the laity was divided.