The molten sulphur accumulates on the sole, whence it is from time to time run out into a square stone receptacle, from which it is ladled into damp poplar-wood moulds and so brought into the shape of truncated cones weighing 110 to 130 lb each.
When it has completely cleared, the liquid caustic is ladled or pumped out into sheet-iron drums, holding about 6 cwt.
The boiler is heated by a furnace, and the oil is brought gradually to the point of ebullition, at which it is maintained for two hours, during which time moisture is driven off, and the scum and froth which accumulate on the surface are ladled out.
All the earlier attempts in this direction failed on account of the difficulty of bringing the glass to the machines without introducing air-bells, which are always formed in molten glass when it is ladled or poured from one vessel into another.
In the simplest and crudest method, as practised in Sicily, a mass of the ore is placed in a hole in the ground and fired; after a time the heat melts a part of the sulphur which runs down to the bottom of the hole and is then ladled out.
Directly work is suspended the glass remaining in the crucibles is ladled into water, drained and dried.
To the bottom, upon coaling the charge, are taken out with a skimmer and discharged into the neighbouring kettle (say to the right) until about two-thirds of the original charge has been removed; then the liquid enriched lead is ladled into the kettle on the opposite side.
Treatment of Settled Soap. - The upper layer having been removed, the desired soap is ladled out or ran off to a crutcher, which is an iron pan provided with hand or mechanical stirring appliances.
Kelli ladled out the contents of the kettles onto each plate.
The frames into which hard soaps are ladled for cooling and solidification consist of rectangular boxes made of iron plates and bound and clamped together in a way that allows the sides to be removed when required; wooden frames are used in the case of mottled soaps.