The French under Jourdan were defeated by the Austrians under the Archduke Charles near Amberg in 1796.
When his fame was at its height he allowed his colleague Jourdan to be beaten, betrayed all his plans to the enemy, and took part in organizing a conspiracy for the return of Louis XVIII., in which he was to play, for his own aggrandizement, the part that Monk played from higher motives in the English revolution.
To avoid disbanding it, which might, as after the peace of Basel, have given the counter-revolution further auxiliaries, the Directory appointed Bonaparte chief of the Army of England, and employed Jourdan to revise the conscription laws so as to make military service a permanent duty of the citizen, since war was now to be the permanent object of policy.
After vainly attempting to break the Austrian centre, Pichegru suddenly turned their left, and defeated Clerfayt at Cassel, Menin and Courtrai, while Moreau, his second in command, defeated Coburg at Tourcoing in May 1794; then after a pause, during which Pichegru feigned to besiege Ypres, he again dashed at Clerfayt and defeated him at Rousselaer and Hooglede, while Jourdan came up with the new army of the Sambre-and-Meuse, and utterly routed the Austrians at Fleurus on the 27th of June 1794.
Bernadotte, Jourdan and Augereau had compromised themselves by close association with the Jacobins.
In December 1793 Hoche was arrested, it is said owing in part to his colleague's machinations, and Pichegru became commander-in-chief of the army of the Rhine-andMoselle, whence he was summoned to succeed Jourdan in the army of the North in February 1794.
In 1796 there were here several encounters between the French under General Jourdan and the troops of the archduke Johan, which resulted in the retreat of the French across the Rhine.
England remaining invulnerable in her insular position despite Hoches attempt to land in Ireland m 1796, the Directory resumed the traditional policy against Austria of conquering the natural frontiers, Carnot furnishing the plans; hence the war in southern Germany, in which Jourdan and Moreau were repulsed by an inferior force under the archduke Charles, and Bonapartes triumphant Italian campaign.