A serious conflict arose between Hincmar on the one side and Charles and the pope on the other in 876, when Pope John VIII., at the king's request, entrusted Ansegisus, archbishop of Sens, with the primacy of the Gauls and of Germany, and created him vicar apostolic. In Hincmar's eyes this was an encroachment on the jurisdiction of the archbishops, and it was against this primacy that he directed his treatise De jure metropolitanorum.
Both had given up the strict jure divino theory of their polity as apostolic. The Congregationalism of the Savoy Declaration (Oct.
In the De jure naturae et gentium Pufendorf took up in great measure the theories of Grotius and sought to complete them by means of the doctrines of Hobbes and of his own ideas.
Up to that time Defoe had written nothing but occasional literature, and, except the History of the Union and Jure Divino, nothing of any great length.
The very name of his historic treatise, De jure belli ac pacis (1625), shows the subordination of peace to the main subject of war.
It shows that the principles and the plan of the celebrated De jure belli, which was not composed t1111625,more than twenty years after,had already been conceived by a youth of twenty-one.
One of his works, of great importance for the history of economic conceptions in the middle ages, was the De origine, natura, jure et mutationibus monetarum, of which there is also a French edition.
It is probable that folkland is meant in two or three cases when Latin documents speak of terra rei publicae jure possessa.
In the De jure praedae of 1604 there is much more than the germ of the later treatise De jure belli.
Defoe's next work was Jure divino, a long poetical argument in (bad) verse; and soon afterwards (1706) he began to be much employed in promoting the union with Scotland.