In this respect, too, Hermas faithfully reflects the Roman Church of the early 2nd century (cf.
The Shepherd of Hermas quotes it Vis.
The list recognized four Gospels, Acts, thirteen epistles of Paul, two epistles of John, Jude, Apocalypse of John and (as the text stands) of Peter; there is no mention of Hebrews or (apparently) of 3 John or Epistles of Peter, where it is possible - we cannot say more - that the silence as to t Peter is accidental; the Shepherd of Hermas on account of its date is admitted to private, but not public, reading; various writings associated with Marcion, Valentinus, Basilides and Montanus are condemned.
Apokalyptik (1857); Novum Testamentum extra canonem receptum (4 parts, 1866; 2nd ed., 1876-1884); Histor.-kritische Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1875); Acta Apostolorum graece et latine secundum antiquissimos testes (1899); the first complete edition of the Shepherd of Hermas (1887); Ignatii et Polycarpi epistolae (1902).
In the Shepherd of Hermas a vision of the church rewards frequent fasts and prayer; and it is related in extra-canonical sources that James the Less vowed that he would fast until he too was vouchsafed a vision of the risen Lord.
Thus some have made him out to be the Hermas to whom salutation is sent at the end of the Epistle to the Romans, others that he was the brother of Pius, bishop of Rome in the middle of the 2nd century, and others that he was a contemporary of Clement, bishop of Rome at the close of the 1st century.
Mandates - perhaps suggested by the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (see Didache), which Hermas knows - and Similitudes i.-viii., while Simil.
The definite discussion of the problems dates from The Shepherd of Hermas (published at Rome about A.D.
Montanus claimed to have a prophetic calling in the very same sense as Agabus, Judas, Silas, the daughters of Philip, Quadratus and Ammia, or as Hermas at Rome.
Of the rest, whose personalities are less known to us, Papias shares Polycarp's qualities and their limitations, the anonymous homilist and Hermas are marked by intense moral earnestness, while the writer to Diognetus joins to this a profound religious insight.