Relied upon the princes and the opponents of a united and the Germany; or, to make another division, Henrys anti- strength lay in the duchies of Franconia and Bavaria, kings.
The pope, to whom the Saxons had been encouraged to complain, responded by sending back certain of Henrys messengers, with the command that the king should do penance for the crimes of which his subjects accused him.
It was not till 1405 that the worst of Henrys troubles came to an end.
And indeed we may note that the precise word parliament first appears in the chroniclers and in official documents about the middle of Henrys reign.
In Saxony the people were quickly forgetting their hereditary connection with the successors of Henry the Fowler; in Bavaria, after the death of Duke Henry in 995, the nobles, heedless of the royal power, returned to the ancient German custom and chose Henrys son Henry as their ruler.
But Henrys bitter humiliations transformed his character; they brought out all his latent capacities of manliness.
For fourteen years he was his masters chief ministerthe person responsible in the nations eyes for all the more unpopular assertions of the royal prerogative, and for all the heavy taxation and despotic acts which Henrys policy required.
It was hardly to be wondered at, therefore, if Henrys allies regularly endeavoured to cheat him out of his share of their joint profits.
Dermot MacMorrough, king of Leinster, an unquiet Irish prince who for good reasons had been expelled by his neighbors, came to Henrys court in Normandy, proffering his allegiance in return for restoration to his lost dominions.
Hence it came that Henrys ambitions and interests were continental more than English.