In 1572 Haarlem joined the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain, but on the 13th of July 1573, after a seven months' siege, was forced to surrender to Alva's son Frederick, who exacted terrible vengeance.
It has communication by railway and canal in every direction; steam-tramways connect it with Edam, Purmerend, Alkmaar and Hilversum, and electric railways with Haarlem and the seaside resort of Zandvoort.
Of Amsterdam, connected by steam-tramway with Haarlem and Amsterdam, and on the North Holland canal.
See Karl Hegel, Steidle and Gilden (Leipzig, 1891); Allan, Geschiedenis en beschrijving van Haarlem (Haarlem, 1871-1888).
North of Haarlem to twice that distance south, hyacinths, tulips, narcissus and crocuses being the flowers chiefly cultivated.
Trans., Religion and Historic Faiths (London, 1907); Haarlem Series, Die Voornaamste Godsdiensten, beginning with Islam, by Dozy (1863 onwards); Soc. for Promotion of Christian Knowledge, Non-Christian Religions; Hibbert Lectures on The Origin and Growth of Religion (15 vols., beginning with F.
It was in the days of Duke Philip that Lorenz Koster of Haarlem contributed his share to the discovery of printing.
Other ancient towns are Zandpoort, Bakenes, Haarlem and Bennebroek, once the seat of a nunnery removed hither from Egmond by Dirk II.
By the generosity of friends he was educated at the gymnasium at Haarlem and afterwards at the university of Leiden.
Market-gardening, especially horticulture, is extensively practised in the vicinity, so that Haarlem is the seat of a large trade in Dutch bulbs, especially hyacinths, tulips, fritillaries, spiraeas and japonicas.