Was the first king of France to take the bourgeoisie into partnership. He favoured the great merchants, granting them trade privileges and monopolies.
The landward defences of Copenhagen, it may be added, were left unprovided for after the Napoleonic wars until the patriotism of Danish women, who subscribed sufficient funds for the first fort, shamed parliament into granting the necessary money for others (1886-1895).
He tried to retrieve his position in the country, and succeeded in a great measure, by granting a very liberal constitution (January 1889, or Dec. 1888 O.S.) at a time when all agitation for a new constitution had been given up. Then, to the great astonishment of the Servians and of his Russian enemies, King Milan voluntarily abdicated, placing the government of the country in the hands of a regency during the minority of his only son Alexander, whom he proclaimed king of Servia on the 6th of March 1889.
Chemists in business before the granting of the charter were entitled to join the society as members, but those who wished to join it subsequently could do so only on condition of passing an examination for the purpose of testing their knowledge of pharmacy.
During the Carolingian epoch the custom grew up of granting these as regular heritable fiefs or benefices, and by the 10th century, before the great Cluniac reform, the system was firmly established.
The latter do not come within the operation of the clause, and a co-contracting state is only entitled to obtain extension of them to itself on granting similar concessions.
Of the technically imperial fiefs, were divided and devised princes, by them at will like other forms of private property; they had nearly all the rights of a sovereign with regard to levying tolls, coining money, administering justice and granting privileges to towns; they were assisted in the work of government by a privy council, while their courts with their numerous officials began to resemble that of the king or emperor.
The Armenian revolutionary societies continued their propaganda down to the granting of the Turkish constitution in 1908; and meanwhile further massacres occurred here and there, notably at Mush (1904) and Van (1908).
Some of the more oppressive measures of the previous reign were abolished; the clergy, the nobles and the merchants were exempted from corporal punishment; the central organs of administration were modernized and the Council of the Empire was created; the idea of granting a constitution was academically discussed; great schemes for educating the people were entertained; parish schools, gymnasia, training colleges and ecclesiastical seminaries were founded; the existing universities of Moscow, Vilna and Dorpat were reorganized and new ones founded in Kazan and Kharkov; the great work of serf-emancipation was begun in the Baltic provinces.
The system of rattachement was in great part abandoned, and decentralization was obtained by augmenting the powers of the governor-general, and by granting to Algeria legal personality and a special budget (see above, Central Government).