The upper consists of princes of the grand-ducal family, heads of mediatized houses, the head of the Roman Catholic and the superintendent of the Protestant church, the chancellor of the university, two elected representatives of the land-owning nobility, and twelve members nominated by the grand duke.
A single battalion (150) of volunteers composes the grand-ducal army.
August von Goethe, whose sole distinction was his birth and his position as grand-ducal chamberlain, died in Italy, on the 27th of October 1830, leaving three children: WALTIiER Wolfgang, born on April 9, 1818, died On April 1 5, 1885; Wolfgang MAXIMILIAN, born on September 18, 1820, died on January 20, 1883; Alma, born on October 22, 1827, died on September 29, 1844.
Among the educational establishments are a gymnasium, and Realschule, the Sophienstift (a large school for girls of the better class, founded by the grand-duchess Sophia), the grand-ducal school of art, geographical institutes, a technical school, commercial school, music school, teachers' seminaries, and deaf and dumb and blind asylums. An English church was opened in 1899.
A lesson in geometry, given by Ostilio Ricci to the pages of the grand-ducal court, chanced, tradition avers, to have Galileo for an unseen listener; his attention was riveted, his dormant genius was roused, and he threw all his energies into the new pursuit thus unexpectedly presented to him.
The grand-ducal government of the Seekreis was dissolved, and Hecker gradually gained reinforcements.
The executive consists of four departments of state - those of the interior, of foreign affairs and of the grand-ducal house, of fina-nce, and of justice, ecclesiastical affairs and education.
Lutheranism was more attractive to grand-ducal patriots and well-to-do burghers than to the poor and oppressed and disinherited.
This order played a noble part in the protection of Tuscan commerce, by fighting the Barbary pirates and establishing the prestige of the grand-ducal navy (see Medici).
There are a Kurhaus, built in 1853, and a park of 15 acres; also a grand-ducal castle, refitted in 1887-1888.