From the St Gotthard to the Maloja the watershed between the basins of the Rhine and Po runs in an easterly direction as a whole, though making two great dips towards the south, first to near the Vogelberg (10,565 ft.) and again to near the Pizzo Gallegione (10,201 ft.), so that it presents a broken and irregular appearance.
Ahmed Kuprili attacked the Austrians, at first with success, but was routed by Montecuculi at the battle of St Gotthard Abbey and eventually consented to the treaty of Vasvar (Aug.
The Kuprilis, both father and son, had by their haughty and uncompromising demeanour done much to alienate the old-standing friendship with France, and at the battle of St Gotthard 6000 French, under Coligny, fought on the Austrian side.
From Lucerne by the St Gotthard railway and 22 m.
Under the increasing pressure of Russia (Muscovy) the Teutonic Knights in 1561 found it expedient to put themselves under the suzerainty of Poland, the grandmaster Gotthard Kettler (d.
In 1561 Gotthard Ketteler publicly abdicated his mastership of the order of the Teutonic Knights, and Riga, together with southern Livonia, became a Polish possession; after some unsuccessful attempts to reintroduce Roman Catholicism, Stephen Bathory, king of Poland, recognized the religious freedom of the Protestant population.
Thence to the St Gotthard the divide runs north-east, all the higher summits (including the Monte Leone, 11,684 ft., and the Pizzo Rotondo, 10,489 ft.) rising on it, a curious contrast to the long stretch just described.
In 1866 he presented a bill favouring Italy's participation in the construction of the St Gotthard tunnel.
At his camp before Riga the last grand-master, Gotthard von Ketteler, who had long been at the head of the Polish party in Livonia, and William of Brandenburg, archbishop of Riga, gladly placed themselves beneath his protection, and by a subsequent convention signed at Vilna (Nov.
In 1664 he was chosen one of the directors of the imperial army raised to fight the Turk; and after the peace which followed the Christian victory at St Gotthard in August 1664, he aided the English king Charles II.