Many of the leading English physicians of the 18th century studied there; Gerard Van Swieten (1700-1772), a pupil of Boerhaave, transplanted the latter's method of teaching to Vienna, and founded the noted Vienna school of medicine.
Other schools of the same class are the Gerard Adriaan van Swieten schools of agriculture, gardening and forestry in Drente, the school of instruction in butter and cheese making (zuivelbereiding) at Bolsward and the state veterinary college at Utrecht.
The making of these began about the 11th century, one of the earliest of the translators, Constantinus Africanus, wrote about 1075, and another, Gerard of Cremona, lived from 1114 to 1187.
The Templars were founded about the year 1118 by a Burgundian knight, Hugh de Paganis; the Hospitallers sprang from a foundation in Jerusalem erected by merchants of Amalfi before the First Crusade, and were reorganized under Gerard le Puy, master until 1120.
A crude system, based on the external appearance of plants and their uses to man, was gradually evolved, and is well illustrated in the Herbal, issued in 1597 by John Gerard (1545-1612), a barber-surgeon, who had a garden in Holborn, and was a keen student of British plants.
The Latin versions were made or edited by Adam von Bodenstein, Gerard Dorn, Michael Toxites and Oporinus, about the middle of the 16th century.
For the Dutch side: Het Leven un Bedryf van den Heere Michiel de Ruiter, by Gerard Brandt (Amsterdam, 1687); Geschiedenis van den Nederlandsche Zeewegen, by J.
Amand, whilst Gerard attempted to storm Ligny; on the right Grouchy held Thielemann in play, and in the centre near Fleurus were the Guard and Milhaud in reserve, close to the emperor's headquarters on the mill.
In 1370 Gerard of Minden wrote a poetical version of Romulus in Low German.
In Germany the only important school of practical medicine was that of Vienna, as revived by Gerard van Swieten (1700-1772), a pupil of Boerhaave, under the patronage of Maria Theresa.