Over 200 of the foe being slain, while 17 Genevese only perished.
On the fall of Napoleon (1813) the city recovered its independence, and finally, in 1815, was received as the junior member of the Swiss confederation, several bits of French and Savoyard territory (as pointed out above) being added to the narrow bounds of the old Genevese Republic in order to give the town some protection against its non-Swiss neighbours.
To this period belongs his first crude literary effort, a polemic against a Genevese pastor who had criticized Rousseau.
His first literary work, except the bombastic but eloquent Essai sur le despotisme (Neufchatel, 1 775), was a translation of Robert Watson's Philip II., done in Holland with the help of Durival; his Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus (London, 1788) was based on a pamphlet by Aedanus Burke (1743-1802), of South Carolina, who opposed the aristocratic tendencies of the Society of the Cincinnati, and the notes to it were by Target;, his financial writings were suggested by the Genevese exile, Claviere.
This armed intervention compelled the duke to sign the treaty of St Julien (19th October) by which he engaged not to trouble the Genevese any more, agreeing that if he did so the two towns of Fribourg and Bern should have the right to occupy his barony of Vaud.
In 1797, at the instance of English statesmen, he published a translation of a history of French finance by Francois d'Ivernois (1757-1842), an eminent Genevese exile naturalized and knighted in England, extracts from which he had previously given in his journal.
More remarkable are the results as to nationality: 43,550 (31,607) were Genevese citizens, city.
The strict rule of Calvin drove out many old Genevese families, while he caused to be received as citizens many French, Italian and English refugees, so that Geneva.
On his return to Paris he had become acquainted with Etienne Claviere, the Genevese exile, and a banker named Panchaud.
But the last half of the 18th century marks the most brilliant period in the literary history of Geneva, whether as regards natives or resident foreigners, while in the succeeding half century the number of Genevese scientific celebrities is remarkable.