The authentic doctrine of the Gathas had no room either for the cult of Mithra or for that of the Haoma.
The evil spirit with his wicked hosts appears in the Gathas much less endowed with the attributes of personality and individuality than does Ahura Mazda.
As the Gathas now constitute the kernel of the most sacred prayer-book, viz.
The Gathas alone claim to be authentic utterances of Zoroaster, his actual expressions in presence of the assembled congregation.
In the Gathas he appears as a quite historical personage; it is essentially to his power and good example that the prophet is indebted for his success.
Just as the Gathas (the ancient Zoroastrian hymns) omit Gaokerena, and the Hebrew prophets on the whole avoid mythological phrases, so this old Hebrew thinker prunes the primitive exuberance of the traditional myth.
The Gathas know nothing of a new belief which afterwards arose in the Fravashi, or guardian angels of the faithful.
So soon as the point of view is clear - that in the Gathas we have firm historical ground on which Zoroaster and his surroundings may rest, that here we have the beginnings of the Zoroastrian religion - then it becomes impossible to answer otherwise than affirmatively every general question as to the historical character of Zoroaster.
The essence of the wicked spirit is falsehood: and falsehood, as the embodiment of the evil principle, is much more frequently mentioned in the Gathas than Ahriman himself.
In the Gathas the Good Spirit of Mazda and the Evil Spirit are the two great opposing forces in the world, and Ormazd himself is to a certain extent placed above them both.