But this ancient furnace does its fourfold work of deoxidizing, melting, removing the gangue and desulphurizing, so very economically that it is not likely to be driven out in other places until the exhaustion of our coal-fields shall have gone so far as to increase the cost of coke greatly.
The gangue was quartz, very irregularly distributed in bodies often of great sizes, for the most part nearly or quite barren of ore.
Thus the more gangue the ore contains, i.e.
Of these the silica and alumina are chiefly those which the gangue of the ore and the ash of the fuel introduce, whereas the lime is that added intentionally to form with these others a slag of the needed physical properties.
Throughout the world, primary deposits of tinstone are in or closely connected with granite or acid eruptive rocks of the same type, its mineral associates being tourmaline, fluorspar, topaz, wolfram and arsenical pyrites, and the invariable gangue being quartz: the only exception to this mode of occurrence is to be found in Bolivia, where the tin ore occurs intimately associated with silver ores, bismuth ores and various sulphides, whilst the gangue includes barytes and certain carbonates.
The poorer it is in iron, the more limestone must in general be added, and hence the more slag results, though of course an ore the gangue of which initially contains much lime and little silica needs a much smaller addition of limestone than one of which the gangue is chiefly silica.
Finally, the improvement in the quality of the iron which resulted from thus completely freeing it from the gangue turned out to be a great and unexpected merit of the indirect process, probably the merit which enabled it, in spite of its complexity, to drive out the direct process.
The silver is extracted from the gangue with the base metal, usually by smelting, and the two are then separated by special processes (see Lead).
The former consist of silver minerals and gangue (vein matter, country-rock).
The second period, by converting the metal into the fusible cast iron and melting this, for the first time removed the gangue of the ore; the third period by giving a temperature high enough to melt the most infusible forms of iron, liberated the slag formed in deriving them from cast iron.