Latterly the word fuero came to be used in Castile in a wider sense than before, as meaning a general code of laws; thus about the time of Saint Ferdinand the old Lex Visigothorum, then translated for the first time into the vernacular, was called the Fuero Juzgo, a name which was soon retranslated into the barbarous Latin of the period as Forum Judicum; 4 and among the compilations of Alphonso the Learned in like manner were an Espejo de Fueros and also the Fuero de las leyes, better known perhaps as the Fuero Real.
The Fuero Real was undoubtedly his work, and he began the code called the Siete Partidas, which, however, was only promulgated by his great-grandson.
The fact that a poem of the 13th century (the Alexandro), and certain redactions of the oldest Spanish code, the Fuero Juzgo, have a Leonese origin has been made too much of, and has led to a tendency to localize excessively certain features common to the whole western zone where the transition takes place from Castilian to Gahician-Portuguese.
The famous code known as the Ordenamiento Real de Alcald, or Fuero Viejo de Castilla, dates from a still later period.
The chartered towns, in Spain east and west, were practically republics living under their own carta pueblo with their own fuero or law.
Speaking generally, and with the proviso that though names might differ from region to region, the facts did not; it may be said that Spain could be classified as follows: Under the crown of Castile all the territory was either abadengo, realingo, salariego, behetr-ia, or it belonged to some town, big or little, which had its carta pueblo or town charter, its own fuero s tems of (forum) or law.
Almost contemporaneous with this fuero of Leon was that granted to Najera (Naxera) by Sancho el Mayor of Navarre (ob.
The earliest extant written fuero is probably that which was granted to the province and town of Leon by Alphonso V.
In the fuero of Cardena, for example, granted by Ferdinand I.
Even then it was subject to the restriction that it was not to prevail against any fuero, or the fuero real.