His brother Gaston survived him, but gave unexpectedly little trouble during the wars of the Fronde which ensued on the death of Louis XIII.
It was during the first Fronde that she lived at the Hotel de Ville and took the city of Paris as god-mother for the child born to her there.
The Fronde was at an end by 1653; the peace of Westphalia (1648) and the peace of the Pyrenees (16J9) marked the success of the arms and of the diplomacy of France.
During the war of the Fronde it suffered severely at the hands of the royal troops under Turenne.
In 1643, on the death of Louis XIII., Gaston became lieutenantgeneral of the kingdom, and fought against Spain on the northern frontiers of France; but during the wars of the Fronde he passed with great facility from one party to the other.
The Fronde over, Mazarin had to build up afresh the power of France at home and abroad.
Capefigue, Richelieu, Mazarin et la Fronde (1835-1836); and Dr J.
He was then director of the college of Senlis, where he composed his Esprit de la Ligue ou histoire politique des troubles de la Fronde pendant le X VI e et le X Vil e siecles (1767).
The second Fronde was largely her work, and in it she played the most prominent part in attracting to the rebels first Conde and later Turenne.
During the wars of the Fronde it was pillaged in 1652; and in the campaign of 1814 it suffered severely.