D.) Nonpareil, Sieur de Merchiston, reveue par lui-mesme, et mise en Francois par Georges Thomson, Escossois.
The family produced not a few turbulent warriors during the Hundred Years' War, and the cardinal's father, Francois du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu, began his career by killing the murderer of his elder brother and then fighting through the wars of religion, first as a favourite of Henry III., and after his death under Henry IV.
The arithmetical half of mathematics, which had been gradually growing into algebra, and had decidedly established itself as such in the Ad logisticen speciosam notae priores of Francois Vieta (1540-1603), supplied to some extent the means of generalizing geometry.
Among these were Auguste Francois Chomel (1788-1858), Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis (1787-1872), Jean Cruveilhier (1791-1874) and Gabriel Andral (1797-1876).
In 1559 he accompanied the princess Margaret, now duchess of Savoy, to Nice, where, in the following year, tidings reached him that he had been chosen to succeed Francois Olivier (1487-1560) in the chancellorship of France.
Her husband died soon after; and calling herself the Princesse Marie de Solms, she spent her time in various fashionable places and dabbled in literature, Eugene Sue and Francois Ponsard being prominent in her court of admirers.
FRANCOIS MARIE AROUET DE VOLTAIRE (1694-1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and man of letters, whose real name was Francois Marie Arouet simply, was born on the 21st of November 1694 at Paris, and was baptized the next day.
The third and fourth volumes preserve the register of his deeds and words from 1870 to 1885; they contain, among other things memorable, the nobly reticent and pathetic tribute to the memory of the two sons, Charles (1826-1871) and Francois (1828-1873), he had lost since their common return from exile.
The biography of St Francis de Sales was written immediately after his death by the celebrated P. de La Riviere and Dom John de St Francois (Goulu), as well as by two other authors of less importance.
Having received his early education from his father Louis Francois Cauchy (1760-1848), who held several minor public appointments and counted Lagrange and Laplace among his friends, Cauchy entered Ecole Centrale du Pantheon in 1802, and proceeded to the Ecole Polytechnique in 1805, and to the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees in 1807.