This fourth period is itself subdivided into three divisions: (I) from the accession of Tiberius to the death of Nero, 68 - the most important part of it being the Neronian age, 54 to 68; (2) the Flavian era, from the death of Nero to the death of Domitian, 96; (3) the reigns of Nerva and Trajan and part of the reign of Hadrian.
At a later date, however, probably under the Flavian emperors, the frontier of upper Germany was advanced somewhat beyond the Rhine, and a fortification, the Pfahlgraben, constructed to protect it.
Juvenal of Jerusalem and Flavian of Thessalonica were some days late.
The Monophysites had the sympathy of the emperor Anastasius, and were finally successful in ousting Flavian in 512 and replacing him by their partisan Severus.
The energy and imprudence of Eutyches in asserting his opinions led to his being accused of heresy by Domnus of Antioch and Eusebius, bishop of Dorylaeum, at a synod presided over by Flavian at Constantinople in 448.
Naturally he felt that the prevalence of Christianity was incompatible with his ideal of Roman prosperity, and therefore that the policy of the Flavian emperors was the only logical solution of an important problem.
Thus he thinks it possible that Peter survived until c. 80, and was martyred under the Flavian emperors.
The tendency to give pre-eminence to Rome appears again in an imperial letter to St Flavian, who, in the judgment of the East, was bishop of Antioch, but who was rejected by the West and Egypt, summoning him to Rome to be there judged by the bishops of the imperial city - a summons which St Flavian did not obey (Tillemont, Ecc.).
The brick-stamps found begin in the Flavian and end with the Hadrianic period.
This judgment is the more interesting as being in distinct conflict with the opinion of the bishop of Rome - Leo - who, departing from the policy of his predecessor Celestine, had written very strongly to Flavian in support of the doctrine of the two natures and one person.