Young, Corps de droit ottoman (7 vols., Oxford, 1905-1906);1906); Pech, Manuel des societes anonymes fonctionnant en Turquie (Paris, 1906); Alexis Bey, Statistique des principaux resultats des chemins de fer de l'empire ottoman (Constantinople, 1909).
Fleming, Magnets and Electric Currents (London, 1898); C. Maurain, Le magnetisme du fer (Paris, 1899; a lucid summary of the principal facts and laws, with special regard to their practical application); Rapports presentes au Congrks international de physique, vol.
Holland, Hungary and Switzerland were all early in the field; and Belgium has succeeded, through the instrumentality of the semi-official Societe Nationale de Chemins de Fer Vicinaux, started in 1885, in developing one of the most complete systems of rural railway transport in the world.
In 1858 he was appointed traffic manager to the Compagnie de Chemins de fer du Midi, a post in which he gave proof of his remarkable talent for organization, and in 1862 returned to the engineering service (in which he attained in 1886 the rank of inspector-general).
This afterwards declined, but it is now one of the principal points of communication between England and France, the railway company maintaining a daily service of fast steamers to Dieppe in connexion with the Chemin de fer de 1'Ouest.
This principle of construction has since been followed in the construction of the Boston subway, of the Chemin de Fer Metropolitain in Paris, and of the New York underground railway.
Apart from the modern studies by Lair, FunckBrentano, Lang and Barnes, referred to above, there is valuable historical matter in the work of Roux-Fazaillac, Recherches historiques sur l'homme au masque defer (1801); see also Marius Topin, L'Homme au masque de fer (Paris, 1870), and Loiseleur, Trois Enigmes historiques (1882).
Under the Normans Matera was a countship for William Bras de Fer and his successors.
Besides the main railways there are numerous light railways (chemins de fer vicinaux), of a total length approaching 2500 m.
Sturza, La Question des Portes de Fer et des cataractes du Danube (Berlin, 1899); A.