LUIGI FEDERICO MENABREA, Marquis of Valdora (1809-1896), Italian general and statesman, was born at Chambery on the 4th of September 1809.
Previously the entire collection had been published only in a Latin translation, Pappi alexandrini mathematicae collectiones a Federico Commandino Urbinate in latinum conversae et comentariis illustratae (Pesaro, 1588) (reprinted at Venice, 1589, and Pesaro, 1602).
Honig, Rapporti tra Federico II e Gregorio IX rispetto alla spedizione in Palestina (1896); P. T.
Masetti, I Pontefici Onorio III, Gregorio IX ed Innocenzo IV a fronte dell' Imperatore Federico II nel secolo XIII (1884); T.
In 12 9 5 the Malatesta obtained possession of it, and kept it until 1444, when it was sold, with Pesaro, to Federico di Montefeltro of Urbino, and with the latter it passed to the papacy under Urban VIII.
President Montt had now fulfilled his term of office, and on the 18th of September 1896 he handed over the presidential power to his successor, Senor Federico Errazuriz, who had been duly elected in the month of June previously.
The observations of Darwin as to the fertilization of orchids, Primula, Linum and Lythrum, and other plants, and the part which insects take in this function, gave an explanation of the observations of Christian Konrad Sprengel, made at the close of the 18th century, and opened up a new phase in the study of botany, which has been followed by Hermann Miller, Federico Delphic) and others, and more recently by Paul Knuth.
Montt's successors, Jose Joaquin Perez (1861-1871), Federico Errazuriz (1871-1876) and Anibal Pinto (1876-1881), abandoned the repressive policy of their predecessors, invited the co-operation of the Liberals, and allowed discontent to vent itself freely in popular agitation.