Withers had proposed a disputation against vestments, which the university would not allow; his thesis affirming the excommunicating power of the presbytery was sustained.
He followed this up by excommunicating the barons who had obtained it, and in the autumn of 1215 the inevitable war began.
By excommunicating Philip I.
They brought themselves into notoriety by excommunicating the philosopher - an act of weak self-defence on the part of men who had themselves but recently been admitted to the country, and were timorous of the suspicion that they shared Spinoza's then execrated views.
The archdeacon had thus become, on the one hand, the oculus episcopi, but on the other hand, armed as he was with powers of imposing penance and, in case of stubborn disobedience, of excommunicating offenders, his power tended more and more to grow at the bishop's expense.
Thus Clement XI., at war with Austria in 1708, debased the currency; Clement (1730-1740) issued paper money and set up a government lottery, excommunicating all subjects who put their money into the lotteries of Genoa or Naples; Benedict XIV.
Innocent replied by laying England under an interdict (March 1208), and excommunicating the king (November 1209).
An abbot also had the power of excommunicating refractory nuns, which he might use if desired by their abbess.
Its extreme papalism and its strenuous defence of Pius V.'s bull excommunicating and deposing Elizabeth marked out Sanders for the enmity of the English government, and he retaliated with lifelong efforts to procure the deposition of Elizabeth and restoration of Roman Catholicism.
At Carlisle there was published a bull excommunicating Bruce; and Elizabeth his wife, Marjorie his daughter, and Christina his sister, were captured in a sanctuary at Tain, while three of his brothers were executed.