This writer, by his conception of the world as will which objectifies itself in a series of gradations from the lowest manifestations of matter up to conscious man, gives a slightly new shape to the evolutional view of Schelling, though he deprives this view of its optimistic character by denying any co-operation of intelligence in the world-process.
Yet though in this way opposing himself to the method of the modern doctrine of evolution, he aided the development of this doctrine by his view of the organic world as an ascending 3 A similar coincidence between the teleological and the modern evolutional way of viewing things is to be met with in Locke's account of the use of pain in relation to the preservation of our being (bk.
Even before the appearance of Sidgwick's book utilitarianism had entered upon its third or evolutional phase, in which principles borrowed from biological science make their entrance into moral philosophy.
The most famous of the systematic exponents of evolutional utilitarianism is, of course, Herbert Spencer, in whose Data of Ethics (1819) the facts of morality are viewed in relation with his vast conception of the total process of cosmic evolution.
Thus in the end of the 17th century the seed was sown which has at intervals brought forth recurrent crops of evolutional hypotheses, based, more or less completely, on general reasonings.
A new and most important feature in organic development makes its appearance when we set out the facts of man's evolutional history.
The main doctrine of evolutional or biological ethics is stated with admirable clearness in the third chapter of Darwin's Descent of Man (pub.
Very curious, in relation to modern evolutional ideas, is the Stoical doctrine that our world is but one of a series of exactly 1 Zeller says that through this distinction Aristotle first made possible the idea of development.
The history of utilitarianism (if we may use the term for the earlier history of a philosophic tendency which appeared long before the invention of the term) falls into three divisions, which may be termed theological, political and evolutional respectively.