This view of course implies that the term was originally applied to Abram or his descendants by a people living on the west of the Euphrates or of the Jordan.
At Bagdad the Tigris and Euphrates are less than 35 m.
Muller, on the other hand, rendering Kreislauf, explains it of the Euphrates water system as a whole, thought of as encompassing Naharin.
The three chief of them carried off the waters of the Euphrates to the Tigris above Babylon, - the Zabzallat canal (or Nahr Sarsar) running from Faluja to Ctesiphon, the Kutha canal from Sippara to Madain, passing Tell Ibrahim or Kutha on the way, and the King's canal or Ar-Malcha between the other two.
A few years later he had a fleet of ships built near Birejik on the Euphrates by his Phoenician captives; these were manned by Ionians and transported from Opis overland to the Euphrates and so to the Persian Gulf.
The little town of Eregli, some 190 kilometres distant from Konia, presented the only excusable locality for the terminus of the first section, and even that place is 90 kilometres distant from Karaman, the last town of any importance for some hundreds of miles on the way to the Euphrates valley, the country between the two towns being desolate and sparsely inhabited.
Animals in the steppe the first place belongs to the camel; next come goat and sheep (not the ordinary fat-tailed variety); the common buffalo is often kept by the Arabs and the Turkomans on the Euphrates and the Tigris; on the Euphrates is found the Indian zebu.
Thus the task now faced them of annexing the remainder of the Macedonian Empire, the whole East from the Euphrates to the Indus, and of thereby saving Greek civilization (cf.
From Garmat Ali, where the Tigris and Euphrates at present unite,' under the title of Shattel-Arab, the river sweeps on to Basra, Ex p o yds.
During this process of growth the kingdom stood in relation to two sects of powers - the three Frankish principalities in northern Syria, and the Mahommedan powers both of the Euphrates and the Nile - whose action affected its growth and character.