Nay more, the difficulties of all kinds against which Eugenius had to contend, the insurrection at Rome, which forced him to escape by the Tiber, lying in the bottom of a boat, left him at first little chance of resisting the enterprises of the council.
The reign of Julian and the usurpation of Eugenius renewed the hopes of its devotees, but the victory of Theodosius (394) may be considered the end of its existence.
His rival, Felix V., meanwhile obtained small recognition, and the latter's ablest adviser, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, made peace with Eugenius in 1442.
A revolution was only averted through the intervention of Pope Eugenius IV., who was then in Florence.
The council of Basel was still sitting, and had elected an anti-pope, Felix V., in opposition to Eugenius IV., while the Frederick electors, adhering to their neutral attitude, sought Ill, and to bring Frederick into line with them on this question, the Some years were occupied in negotiations, but the Pa,oacv.
Van Moerbeek, which was long thought to be a fragment of Ptolemy's Optics, because it bore the title Ptolemaei de speculis in the MS. But the attribution to Ptolemy was shown to be wrong as soon as it was made clear (especially by Martin) that another translation by an Admiral Eugenius Siculus (12th century) of an optical work from the Arabic was Ptolemy's Optics.
It has never been recognized as such, and the pretended endorsement of it by Pope Eugenius III.
He was finally apprehended by order of Pope Eugenius IV., condemned and burnt for heresy.
These two inquisitors, who pursued their duties under three popes (Martin V., Eugenius IV.
France, however, withdrew its support from the council, and in 1438, under purely national auspices, by the famous Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, adjusted the relations of the Gallican Church to the papacy; and Eugenius soon found himself in a position to repudiate the council and summoned a new one to assemble in 1438 at Ferrara under his control to take up the important question of the pending union with the Greek Church.