By that treaty Peter acquired not only Ingria and Karelia, as originally contemplated, but also Livonia, Esthonia and part of Finland.
In August 1346, he prudently rid himself of the distant and useless province of Esthonia by selling it very advantageously to the Livonian Order.
Altogether they number close upon one million, and are thus distributed: 3 6 5,959 in Esthonia (in 1897), 5 18, 594 in Livonia, 64,116 in the government of St Petersburg, 25,458 in that of Pskov, and 12,855 in other parts of Russia.
Denmark was also compelled to recognize, practically, the independence of the dukes of HolsteinGottorp. The Russian War was terminated by the Peace of Kardis (July 2, 1661), confirmatory of the Peace of Stolbova, whereby the tsar surrendered to Sweden all his Baltic provinces - Ingria, Esthonia and Kexholm.
In 1521 the nobles and cities of Esthonia voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of the crown of Sweden; but after the wars of Charles XII., Esthonia was formally ceded to his victorious rival, Peter the Great, by the peace of Nystad (1721).
The war between Russia and Sweden for the possession of Esthonia and Livonia (1571-77) had been uninterruptedly disastrous to the latter, and, in the beginning of 1577, a countless Russian host sat down before Reval, Sweden's last stronghold in those parts.
Coast of the Gulf of Finland; the Esths, in Esthonia and the N.
Russia, which is going on from Esthonia and Finland to the Kola peninsula and Novaya Zemlya, at an average rate of about two feet per century.
Between Esthonia and Courland is the Gulf of Riga, a shallow inlet of roughly circular form, about loo m.
The independence of Lithuania de facto was recognized by Sweden, Norway, England, Esthonia, Finland, France and Poland; de jure by Germany on March 23 1918, by Soviet Russia on July 12 1920, by Latvia and Esthonia in Feb.