Isobutyric acid is found in the free state in carobs (Ceratonia siliqua) and in the root of Arnica dulcis, and as an ethyl ester in croton oil.
Reimer, Ber., 1876, 9, p. 1285); and by the action of sodium on a mixture of phenol and chlorcarbonic ester (T.
In this reaction the proportions of aldehyde and acetoacetic ester may be interchanged and ay disubstituted pyridines are then obtained.
It occurs naturally in some resins, especially in gum benzoin (from Styrax benzoin), in dragon's blood, and as a benzyl ester in Peru and Tolu balsams. It can be prepared by the oxidation of toluene, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and cinnamic acid; by the oxidation of benzene with manganese dioxide and concentrated sulphuric acid in the cold (L.
Of foremost importance are the reactions termed the malonic acid and the aceto-acetic ester syntheses; these are discussed under their own headings.
This compound is converted by chlorine water into octachloracetylacetone (3) by methyl alcohol into the ester of dichlormalonic acid and tetrachioracetone (4); whilst ammonia gives dichloracetamide (5) (Th.
It is the methyl ester of a neutral body colchicein, which may be obtained in white acicular crystals.
Pechmann, Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2950) and, with fumaric methyl ester it forms pyrazolin dicarboxylic ester.
The cetyl ester is spermaceti, and the myricyl ester is largely present in beeswax.
Many esters of malonic acid have been prepared, the most important being the diethyl ester (malonic ester), CH 2 (000C 2 H 5) 2, which is obtained by dissolving monochloracetic acid in water, neutralizing the solution with potassium carbonate, and then adding potassium cyanide and warming the mixture until the reaction begins.