Among these the chief were the new elector of Saxony, John (who, unlike his brother, Frederick the Wise, had openly espoused the new doctrines), and the energetic Philip, landgrave of Hesse.
Gradually the dispute pervaded all classes of society, and the religious questions became entangled with political issues; the partisans of the house of Orange espoused the cause of the stricter Calvinism, whereas the bourgeois oligarchy of republican tendencies, led by Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius, stood for Arminianism.
During the civil wars it espoused the party of Pescennius Niger; and though skilfully defended by the engineer Periscus, it was besieged and taken (A.D.
Almost the whole Bohemian nation therefore espoused the cause of Huss (q.v.).
The Bourbon kings espoused their relative's quarrel, seized Avignon, Benevento and Ponte Corvo, and united in a peremptory demand for the suppression of the Jesuits (January 1769).
He opposed the Protestants until the end of the reign of Henry III., but espoused the cause of Henry IV.
His name is chiefly associated with the quarrels between Lothair and Louis the Pious, in which he espoused the cause of the former, for whom, in the Campus Mendacii (Liigenfeld, field of lies), as it is usually called (833), he secured by his treachery a temporary advantage.
Even the Lutheran elector of Saxony espoused his cause.
Under republican rule these Indians - who were mainly small shopkeepers, but included some professional men of high standing - had suffered many restrictions, and their cause had been Position of espoused by the British government.
Fresnel's arguments in favour of that theory found little favour with Laplace, Poisson and Biot, the champions of the emission theory; but they were ardently espoused by Humboldt and by Arago, who had been appointed by the Academy to report on the paper.