It is situated on the right bank of the Maros, on the outskirts of the Transylvanian Erzgebirge or Ore Mountains, and consists of the upper town, or citadel, and the lower town.
Communication with the Erzgebirge is provided by numerous lines of railway, some, such as that from Freiberg to Briix, that from Chemnitz to Komotau, and that from Zwickau to Carlsbad, crossing the range, while various local lines serve the higher valleys.
It is picturesquely situated in the plain of the Biela, which separates the Erzgebirge from the Bohemian Mittelgebirge, and is a favourite watering-place, containing a large Kurhaus and numerous handsome bathhouses.
The lowest lands are the most productive, and fertility diminishes as we ascend towards the south, until on the bleak crest of the Erzgebirge cultivation ceases altogether.
The Erzgebirge is celebrated for its lace manufactures, introduced by Barbara Uttmann in 1541, embroideries, silk-weaving and toys.