Very similar operations have been carried out in Austria-Hungary, where large tracts of land have been brought into cultivation, and watercourses have been diverted successfully despite serious difficulties, climatic and physical; in Russia convict labour has been largely used in the construction of the Trans-siberian railway; the military operations in the Sudan were greatly aided by convict labourers engaged in useful work at the base and all along the line; Italy passed a law in 1904 enacting outdoor labour for the reclamation and draining of waste lands by prisoners under long sentence; and France, although much wedded to cellular imprisonment, is beginning to favour extra-mural employment of prisoners under strict regulations.
In enacting this measure Congress had been dominated largely by one man - Stephen A.
Procopius complains that he and Tribonian were always repealing old laws and enacting new ones, and accuses them of venal motives for doing so.
In criminal cases, however, foreign consuls still exercised jurisdiction, but the main evil of the Capitulations rgime was the absence of any proper machinery for enacting laws applicable to the whole of the inhabitants of Egypt.
No law, current in Geneva, has ever been adduced as enacting the capital sentence.
They had in 1 347 succeeded in enacting a very stringent law against all who were in any way tainted with Ghibellinism,which,they themselves being above suspicion in that connexion, enabled them to drive from office many members of the popolo minuto.
C. 1., enacting even more severe penalties, had never been repealed, and was sometimes put in force against Friends.
Casimir the Great even tried to make municipal government as democratic as possible by enacting that one half of the town council of Cracow should be elected from the civic patriciate, but the other half from the commonalty.
Spanish legislation was not satisfied with endeavouring to exclude all European nations except Spain from trading with the West Indies, but it sought to limit all commerce to one particular route, and it forbade any trade being transacted by way of the river Plate, thus enacting the most flagrant injustice towards the people it had encouraged to settle in the latter country.
C. 3), enacting fines against those who refused to find a man for the militia, was occasionally put in force.