South of the latter is the irregular and deeply broken Loja basin, which can hardly be considered a part of the great Ecuador plateau.
The cochineal insect is found on the cactus which grows in abundance in the vicinity, and the town is known throughout Ecuador for its manufacture of boots and shoes, and for a cordage made from cabuya, the fibre of the agave plant.
With regard to the section between the Amazon and the Apaporis river, already settled between Brazil and Peru, the territory has been in protracted dispute between Peru, Ecuador and Colombia; but a treaty of limits between Brazil and Ecuador was signed in 1901 and promulgated in 1905.
As a rule, the mestizos of Ecuador are ignorant, indolent and non-progressive.
In Ecuador the depression between the Eastern and Western Cordilleras is almost entirely filled with modern lavas and agglomerates; in Colombia the corresponding Cauca depression is almost free from such deposits.
A movement was now set afoot in favour of a confederation of the three republics of Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela on the basis of the original conditions existing after the expulsion of Spanish authority, and a resolution was passed by the chamber of deputies to that effect.
On the western versant of the Andes of Ecuador there are three river systems of considerable size - the Mira, the Esmeraldas and the Guayas.
Vergara y Velasco's Atlas de geografia colombiana (1906-1908); Ecuador is fairly well represented by Th.
It is to be noted that the Gulf of Guayaquil separates the humid, forestcovered coastal plain of Ecuador from the arid, barren coast of Peru, the two regions being widely dissimilar.
To his personal energy and enterprise, as manager of the railway company, was largely due the continued prosecution of this difficult engineering undertaking, in connexion with which he was responsible for a thorough reconstruction of Ecuador finance.