On the other hand, in the case of less regular deposits, including most metalliferous veins, and especially those of the precious metals, the uncertainty is often very great, and it is sometimes necessary to work on a small scale for months before any considerable expenditure of money is justified.
When the expenditure during the same period was examined the extraordinary fact was disclosed that the sum raised by revenue was only three millions less than that spent on administration, tribute and public works, including a sum of 10,500,000, described as expenses of questionable utility or policy.
Added to this the state saw itself compelled, in view of the political situation, to increase its expenditure on armaments; and since this expenditure grew at a rate with which the revenue could not keep pace, the Government had constantly to raise large sums by borrowing in the open market, and in 1912 had even to raise a big loan in America.
War and extravagant expenditure had come, and he believed both to be fatal to the prosperity and progress of America.
By economies and new taxes Sella had reduced the deficit to less than 2,000,000 in 1871, but for 1872 he found himself confronted with a total expenditure of 8,ooo,ooo in excess of revenue.
Fixing Italian military expenditure at a maximum of 9,560,000 a year, but in December of that year he was defeated in the Chamber on the question of the promotion of officers.
All this is true, but three readings instead of one for each pointing, much more figure-work in computation (especially if corrections have to be applied to the scale readings to reduce them to exact normal screw readings), are factors which involve a far greater expenditure of time than making a few additional turns of a screw in the process of measurement.
Since 1885 a large expenditure has been incurred in the abolition of grade For a summary statement of state labour laws in the United States in 1903 see Bulletin 54 of the United States Bureau of Labor, September 1904; and for a summary of labour laws in force at the end of 1907 see 22nd Annual Report (for 1907) of the U.S. Commissioner of Labor (Washington, 1908).
At first indeed, since the war was only expected to last a short time, there was little disposition to incur the heavy expenditure necessary in order to secure a share in the manufacture of war material; but this attitude was soon changed, and within six months factories everywhere had been adapted to the supply of munitions and all the variety of other things required by the Government for the armies.
The treasury was exhausted by lavish expenditure on gladiatorial and wild beast combats and on the soldiery, and the property of the wealthy was confiscated.