The king is irresponsible, and executive power is vested in him alone.
The government of Baden is an hereditary monarchy, with the executive power vested in the grand-duke, while the legislative authority is shared by him with a representative assembly (Landtag) consisting of two chambers.
Italy is a constitutional monarchy, in which the executive power belongs exclusively to the sovereign.
The executive power is vested in a college formed by the burgomaster and two, three or four magistrates (wethouders) to be chosen by and from the members of the council.
Comparing the old constitutions with the new ones, it may be said that the note of those enacted in the first thirty or forty years of the republic was their jealousy of executive power and their careful safeguarding of the rights of the citizen; that of the second period, from 1820 to the Civil War (186165), the democratization of the suffrage and of institutions generally; that of the third period (since the war to the present day), a disposition to limit the powers and check the action of the legislature, and to commit power to the hands of the whole people voting at the polls.
The president of the republic enjoys such executive power as is expressly assigned to him by the constitution, and he has his own office - the president's bureau - presided over by a permanent official, to conduct such matters as fall within his competence and to facilitate communication with the rest of the executive.
The executive power is vested in the king, advised by a cabinet of eight members, who are collectively and individually responsible to the nation, and represent the ministers of foreign affairs, war, the interior, finance, public works, commerce, religion and education, and justice.
They desired a constitution like that of England which should reserve a large executive power to the king, while entrusting the taxing and legislative powers to a modern parliament.
The executive power is vested by the constitution in a presi dent, two vice-presidents and a cabinet of ministers.
As the delegate of the executive power he had the right to military command in the king's name, and to take all the measures necessary for the preservation of the peace, i.e.