In 1851 the first grand lodge was established at New York; in 1856, the number of district lodges having increased, the supreme authority was vested in a central body consisting of one member from each lodge; and by the present constitution, adopted in 1868, this authority is vested in a president elected for five years, an executive committee and court of appeals (elected as before).
The ephors summoned and presided over meetings of the Gerousia and Apella, and formed the executive committee responsible for carrying out decrees.
Together with the kings and ephors it formed the supreme executive committee of the state, and it exercised also a considerable criminal and political jurisdiction, including the trial of kings; its competence extended to the infliction of a sentence of exile or even of death.
She also lectured on English literature for the university extension movement, and in 1909 was elected to the executive committee of the N.U.W.S.S.
In consequence of Czech aggressiveness, the German parties (the German Progressists, the German Populists, the Constitutional Landed Proprietors and the Christian Socialists, created a joint executive committee and a supreme committee of four members to watch over German racial interests.
At the head of the executive is a provincial administrator, appointed by the Union ministry, who holds office for five years and is assisted by an executive committee of four members elected by the provincial council.
The provincial council is presided over by a chairman, elected from its members; and the council also chooses an executive committee of four, who need not be members of the council.
After laying down his dictatorial powers, he continued to preside over the Executive Committee till the election of a regular president of the republic. It was expected that the suffrages of France would raise Cavaignac to that position.
He was one of the founders of the Free Art League, of the International Copyright League, and of the Authors' Club; was chairman of the New York Tenement House Commission in 18 9 4; and was a prominent member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, of the Council of the National Civil Service Reform League, and of the executive committee of the Citizens' Union of New York City.