Other paintings of this and the succeeding year we may seek for in vain; but in line engravings we have four more Madonnas, two St Christophers, one or two more peasant subjects, the well-known St Anthony with the view of Nuremberg in the background, and the smaller of the two portraits of the Cardinal-Elector of Mainz; and in wood-, engraving several fine heraldic pieces, including the arms of Nuremberg.
Mantegna has sometimes been credited with the important invention of engraving with the burin on copper.
A plan, the engraving of which formerly took two years, can now be produced in two days.
But personally Peter learnt nearly all that he wanted to know - gunnery at Konigsberg, shipbuilding at Saardam and Deptford, anatomy at Leiden, engraving at Amsterdam - and was proceeding to Venice to complete his knowledge of navigation when the revolt of the slryeltsy, or musketeers (June 1698), recalled him to Moscow.
In the r3th century this undeveloped stage has passed, and a fine, but still restrained, quality of engraving ensues, which, like all the allied arts of that century, charms with its simple and unpretending precision.
The beginnings of a school of wall painting also go back to the Middle Minoan period, and metal technique and such arts as gem engraving show great advance.
Our only existing memorials of the great work are a number of small pen-studies of fighting men and horses, three splendid studies in red chalk at Budapest for heads in the principal group, one head at Oxford copied by a contemporary of the size of the original cartoon (above life); a tiny sketch, also at Oxford, by Raphael after the principal group; an engraving done by Zacchia of Lucca in 1558 not after the original but after a copy; a 16th-century Flemish drawing of the principal group, and another, splendidly spirited, by Rubens, both copies of copies; with Edelinck's fine engraving after the Rubens drawing.
The use of the diamond for other purposes than jewelry depends upon its extreme hardness: it has always been the only material used for cutting or engraving the diamond itself.
The account which has come down to us is that Mantegna began engraving in Rome, prompted by the engravings produced by Baccio Baldini of Florence after Sandro Botticelli; nor is there anything positive to invalidate this account, except the consideration that it would consign all the numerous and elaborate engravings made by Mantegna to the last sixteen or seventeen years of his life, which seems a scanty space for them, and besides the earlier engravings indicate an earlier period of his artistic style.
De Belgique (1857); Duchesne, Nielles des orfevres florentins (1826); Passavant, Le Peintre-graveur (1860-1864); Ottley, History of Engraving (1816) and Collection of Facsimiles of Prints (1826); Cicognara, Storia della scultura, iii.