In the Amazon valley fish is a principal article of food, and large quantities of pirarucu (Sudis gigas) are caught during the season of low water and prepared for storage or market by drying in the sun.
The object of crossing (croissage) is to round, smooth and condense the separate filaments of each set into one strand, and as the surface of the filaments is gummy and adhesive it is found on drying that they have agglutinated into a compact single fibre of raw silk.
Three years may be said to be spent in the process, one year warping, one year drying and consolidating, and one year growing the first crop, which is generally seed-hoed in by hand, as the mud at this time is too soft to admit of horse labour.
A study of the changes going on in the rif tvalley in which the lakes lie leads, however, to the belief that the Albert Edward and Albert Nyanzas are drying up, a process which the nature of the drainage areas is helping to bring about.
When a number of specimens have to be submitted to pressure, ventilation is secured by means of frames corresponding in size to the drying paper, and composed of strips of wood or wires.
The apparatus for drying ore and salt varies greatly, drying-floors, dry-kilns and continuous mechanical reverberatory furnaces with stationary and revolving hearths being used.
The slabs are sent by a conveyor to a drying stove, whence they issue to pass through a cutting machine, provided with knives so arranged that the cutting takes place both downwards and upwards, and here the slabs are cut into cubes.
Watering, which, except during the resting period, should generally be copious, is best done in the forenoon; while syringing should be done early in the morning before the sun becomes too powerful, and late in the afternoon to admit of the foliage drying moderately before night.
A temperate or colder zones where a season favourable to vegetation is succeeded by an unfavourable or winter season, leaves of evergreens must be protected from the frost and cold drying winds, and are therefore tougher or more leathery in texture than those of deciduous trees, and frequently, as in pines, firs and other conifers, are needle-like, thus exposing a much smaller surface to the drying action of cold winds.
The disease is due to poisoning by micro-organisms produced by deteriorated maize, and can be combated by care in ripening, drying and storing the maize.