Jurien de la Graviere, all published in Paris, Doria et Barberousse (1886), Les Corsaires barbaresques (1887), Les Chevaliers de Malte (1887), and La Guerre de Chypre (1888), deal with the epoch of the beylerbeys and the regular wars.
Petit's Andre Doria (Paris, 1887) is an accurate and documented biography, indicating all the chief works on the subject, but the author is perhaps unduly harsh in his judgment of the admiral; F.
The castle was originally erected by Robert Guiscard, but as it now stands it is mainly the work of the Doria family, who have possessed it since the time of Charles V.; and the noble cathedral which was founded in 1153 by Robert's son and successor, Roger, has had a modern restoration (though it retains its campaniles) in consequence of the earthquake of 1851, when the town was ruined, over one thousand of the inhabitants perishing.
Although Doria was ambitious and harsh, he was a good patriot and successfully opposed the emperor Charles's repeated attempts to have a citadel built in Genoa and garrisoned by Spaniards; neither blandishments nor threats could win him over to the scheme.
Jurien de la Gravihre in Les Corsaires barbaresques et la marine de Soliman le Grand (1887), and Doria et Barberousse (1886).
The second and decisive battle was fought upon the Adriatic. The Genoese fleet under Luciano Doria defeated the Venetians off Pola in 1379, and sailed without opposition to Chioggia, which was stormed and taken.
From these contests of rival nobles, in which the names of Spinola and Doria stand forth with greatest prominence, Genoa was soon drawn into the great vortex of the Guelph and Ghibelline factions; but its recognition of foreign authority - successively German, Neapolitan and Milanese - gave way to a state of greater independence in 1339, when the government assumed a more permanent form with the appointment of the first doge, an office held at Genoa for life, in the person of Simone Boccanera.
War between France and the Empire having broken out once more, the French seized Corsica, then administered by the Genoese Bank of St George; Doria was again summoned, and he spent two years (1553-1555) in the island 425 fighting the French with varying fortune.
The Palazzo Doria in the Piazza del Principe, presented to Andrea Doria by the Genoese in 1522, is on the other hand earlier; it was remodelled in 1529 by Montorsoli and decorated with fine frescoes by Perino del Vaga.
Of free commonwealths there now survived only Venice, which, together with Spain, achieved for Europe the victory of Lepanto in 1573; Genoa, which, after the ineffectual Fieschi revolution in 1547, abode beneath the rule of the great Doria family, and held a feeble sway in Corsica; and the two insignificant republics of Lucca and San Marino.