A-Naphthoic acid, C 1 oH 7 CO 2 H, is formed by hydrolysis of the nitrile, obtained by distilling potassiuma-naphthalene sulphonate with potassium cyanide (V.
The esters of the acid may be obtained by distilling a mixture of the sodium or potassium salts and the corresponding alcohol with hydrochloric or sulphuric acids.
It may be prepared by distilling cinchoninic acid with lime; by the reduction of ortho-aminocinnamic aldehyde (A.
Fuming nitric acid consists of a solution of nitrogen peroxide in concentrated nitric acid and is prepared by distilling dry sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.
Pechmann, Ber., 18 9 5, 28, p. 857); by distilling anisic acid (paramethoxy benzoic acid) with baryta or by boiling phenyl diazonium chloride with methyl alcohol.
Prelinger's manganese has a specific gravity of 7.42, and the variety obtained by distilling pure manganese amalgam in vacuo is pyrophoric (A.
Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).
These distilling vessels are called retorts if they are supported only at the ends, and the furnace using them is termed a Belgian furnace.
Lord Dundonald, in 1787, whilst distilling coal for the production of tar and oil, noticed the formation of inflammable gas, and even used it for lighting the hall of Culross Abbey.
Esters may be prepared by heating the silver salt of an acid with an alkyl iodide; by heating the alcohols or alcoholates with an acid chloride; by distilling the anhydrous sodium salt of an acid with a mixture of the alcohol and concentrated sulphuric acid; or by heating for some hours on the water bath, a mixture of an acid and an alcohol, with a small quantity of hydrochloric or sulphuric acids (E.