II the velocity ratio to be communicated were variable, the point D would alter its position, and the line DT its direction, at different periods of the motion, and the wheels would be hyperboloids of an eccentric or irregular cross-section; but forms of this kind are not used in practice.

Let us Freezing freeze out unit mass of solvent from a solution at its freezing point T - dT and remove the ice, which is assumed to be the ice of the pure solvent.

The cylinder is of volume u dt dS, so that the product of this and expression (9) must give the number of impacts between the area dS and molecules of the kind under consideration within the interval dt.

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By applying the first law of thermodynamics, Kohlrausch deduces that a quantity of heat, CBdT, is absorbed in the element dT per second by the current C. He wrongly identifies this with the Thomson effect, by omitting to allow for the heat carried.

Then let us heat both ice and solution through the infinitesimal temperature range dT to the freezing point T of the solvent, melt the ice by the application of an amount of heat L, which measures its latent heat of fusion, and allow the solvent so formed to enter the solution reversibly through a semi-permeable wall into an engine cylinder, doing an amount of work Pdv.