Consonanbs.On the liquids 1, m, n, r there is little to be remarked, except that the last-named letter has two proiitiiciationsoee soft (voiced), as in amor, burla, the other hard (voiceless), as iu rendir, tierra (Old Cast, in this case goes so far as to double the initial consonant: rrendir)and that n is often inserted before s and d: ensayo,, mensage, rendir (redder a).

Since the ratio (i), whose expression we seek, is of no dimensions in mass, it follows at once that D and D' occur only under the form D: D', which is a simple number and may therefore be disregarded.

Again two forms occur: (i.) modus ponendo tollens which by the affirmation of one alternative denies the other (A is either B or C; A is B; therefore it is not C: or either A is B, or C is D; A is B; therefore C is not D: or either A or B is C; A is C; therefore B is not C); (ii.) modus tollendo ponens which by the denial of the one, establishes the validity of the other alternative (A is either B or C; A is not B; therefore it is C: or either A or B is C; A is not C; therefore B is C: or either A is B, or C is D; A is not B; therefore C is D).

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At the present day the d of the suffixes ado, ido is no longer pronounced throughout the whole extent of the domain, and the same holds good also of the final d: saiji, poni, for satud, poned (from s a I u t e m, p o n i t e).