The history of modern Czech music commences with the creator of Czech opera, Frederick Smetana.
Since the last election in the spring of 1908 the Bohemian Diet had been unworkable, eventually owing to obstruction on the part of the Germans, who saw themselves handed over hopelessly to the Czech majority, until a rearrangement of the voting groups (curiae) should afford them protection against Czech oppression.
The nucleus of the new army he found in the Czech mercenaries, seasoned veterans who readily transferred their services to the best payer.
It is the see of a bishop since 1783, and is the centre of a German enclave in Czech Bohemia.
This gave rise to sympathetic demonstrations in many Dalmatian and Bosnian towns, and to a series of interpellations and speeches by the Yugoslav and Czech deputies in the Parliament of Vienna.
The Czech (Cech) alphabet is the same as the English, with the omission of the letters q, w and x.
In consequence of Czech aggressiveness, the German parties (the German Progressists, the German Populists, the Constitutional Landed Proprietors and the Christian Socialists, created a joint executive committee and a supreme committee of four members to watch over German racial interests.
A result of this is that, as educated Czechs are generally bilingual, it is easier for them to obtain appointments in districts where a knowledge of Czech is required, and the Germans, therefore, regard every order requiring the use of Czech as an order which excludes Germans from a certain number of posts.
In return Hussite mercenaries fought on the Polish side at Tannenburg, and Czech patriots repeatedly offered the crown of Bohemia to Wladislaus.
At present the largest and most regular contributions to the population of Vienna come from the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, next in importance being those from Lower Austria and Styria.