An incorporated town must elect a mayor, five councilmen and a treasurer, and its mayor must appoint a marshal and a clerk.
By a law of 1907 cities with a population of 25,000 or more may adopt a commission form of government, with a mayor and four councilmen elected at large on a non-partisan ticket.
From before the Conquest until the incorporation charter of 1604 Ripon was governed by a wakeman and 12 elders, or aldermen, but in 1604 the title of wakeman was changed to mayor, and 12 aldermen and 24 common councilmen were appointed.
Under its provisions the mayor and the 26 councilmen are the only elected officials.
The election of aldermen and common councilmen takes place in the wardmotes.
The senate contains four members from each province, chosen for eight years by a provincial electoral board, which consists of the provincial councilmen plus a double number of electors (half of them paying high taxes) who are selected at a special election by their fellow citizens.
In 1684 a mayor, 12 aldermen and 31 common councilmen were nominated as governors.
In cities of the first class fifteen, and of the second ten, councilmen are elected by wards, while in cities of the third class (all having less than 5000 inhabitants) five councilmen are elected on a general ticket.
An act of 1887 had amended the provisions of the Wallace Act in regard to second class cities by changing the terms of select councilmen from two to four years and of common councilmen from one to two years.
Both aldermen and councilmen serve without pay, and are elected on a general ticket for a term of two years; not more than two councilmen may be residents of the same ward, but there is no such limitation in regard to aldermen.