On the fall of the Venetian republic in 1797 the treaty of Campo Formio, which gave Venice to Austria, annexed the Ionian Islands to France; but a Russo-Turkish force drove out the French at the close of 1798; and in the spring of 1799 Corfu capitulated.
War was declared against Austria (1716); the fleet sailed for Corfu and the army crossed the Save from Belgrade to Semlin.
The Greek constitution admits no religious disabilities, but anti-Semitic riots in Corfu and Zante in 1891 caused much distress and emigration.
They were afterwards robbed of the island by Leon Vetrano, a famous Genoese corsair; but he was soon defeated and put to death, and the senate, to secure their position, granted fiefs in Corfu to ten noble families in order that they might colonize it (1206).
Switzerland, Belgium, Corfu and Paxo and Luxemburg are respectively neutralized by the treaties of Vienna, 1815, and of London, 1839, 1864, 1867.
On the other hand neutralization has made progress in respect of waterways, 1 Under the treaty of the 29th of March 1864, the courts of Great Britain, France and Russia in their character of guaranteeing powers of Greece declared with the assent of the courts of Austria and Prussia that the islands of Corfu and Paxo as well as their dependencies should, after their union to the Hellenic'kingdom, enjoy the advantages of perpetual neutrality, and the king of the Hellenes undertook on his part to maintain such neutrality- (Art.
If the kings of Sicily on this side the Pharos kept Corfu down to 1386, those beyond the Pharos became in 1311 overlords of Athens, when that duchy was seized by Catalan adventurers, disbanded after the wars of Sicily.
In shape it is not unlike the sickle (drepane), to which it was compared by the ancients,--the hollow side, with the town and harbour of Corfu in the centre, being turned towards the Albanian coast.
By the treaty of Campo Formio Corfu was ceded to the French, who occupied it for two years, until they were expelled by a Russo-Turkish armament (1799).
The works of Carlo Botta are Storia naturale e medica dell' Isola di Corfu (1798); an Italian translation of Born's Joannis Physiophili specimen monachologiae (1801); Souvenirs d'un voyage en Dalmatie (1802); Storia della guerra dell' Independenza d'America (1809); Camillo, a poem (1815); Storia d'Italia dal 1789 al 1814 (1824, new ed., Prato, 1862); Storia d'Italia in continuazione al Guiccaardini (1832, new ed., Milan, 1878).