Under foot, it now demanded much more radical reform, quitting the ranks of peaceable citizens to pass into the only militant class of the time and adopt its customs. Men like Coligny, dAndelot and Cond took the place of the timid Lefvre of Etapies and the harsh and bitter Calvin; and the reform party, in contradiction to its doctrines and its doctors, became a political and religious party of opposition, with all the compromises that presupposes.
After fighting for five years against the whole of Europe by land and by sea, the efforts of Turenne, Cond and Duquesne culminated at Nijmwegen.
Villeroy demurred; and the parlement, having illegally assumed a political role, broke with Cond and effected a reconciliation with the court.
The brothers de Witt, in consequence of their fresh offer to treat at any price, were assassinated; the broken dykes of Muiden arrested the victorious march of Cond and Turenne; while the popular and military party, directed by the stadtholder William of Orange, took the upper hand and preached resistance to the death.
Under the prince of Cond they had ollected a little army round Trier; and in concert with the Austrian Committee of Paris they solicited the armed intervention of monarchical Europe.
To defend Cond the great conspiracy of women was formed: Madame de Chevreuse, the subtle and impassioned princess palatine, and the princess of Cond vainly attempted to arouse Normandy, Burgundy and the mob of Bordeaux; while Turenne, bewitched by Madame de Longueville, allowed himself to become involved with Spain and was defeated at Rethel (December15, 1650).
A great battle is said to have been fought near Birr in the 3rd century between Cormac, son of Cond of the Hundred Battles, and the people of Munster.
The i9th of December 1562 the duke of Guise barred the way to Dreux against the German reinforcements of dAndelot, who after having threatened Paris were marching to join forces with the English troops for whom Coligny and Cond had paid by the cession of Havre.
Under his orders Turenne conquered Flanders (June-August 1667); and as the queen-mother of Spain would not give in, Cond occupied Franche Comt in fourteen days The tilpie (February 1668).
Influence of External Cond itions.T his position does not, however, exclude the influence of external conditions; that influence is undeniable.