There is extant a letter of Pope Clement III., dated the 8th of June 1188, in which Clement alludes to two of Joachim's works, the Concordia and the Expositio in Apocalypsin, and urges him to continue them.
The following year, the question of the intervention of kings in the election of bishops having been raised in a pamphlet by Charles Hersent (Optatus Gallus de cavendo schismate, 1640), Marca defended what were then called the liberties of the Gallican Church, in his celebrated treatise De concordia sacerdotii et imperii, seu de libertatibus ecclesiae gallicanae (1641).
Previous attempts at concord had been made at the request of different rulers, especially by Jacob Andrea with his Swabian Concordia in 1573, and Abel Scherdinger with the Maulbronn Formula in 1575.
FRANCISCUS GRATIANUS, compiler of the Concordia di,s cordantium canonum or Decretum Gratiani, and founder of the science of canon law, was born about the end of the filth century at Chiusi in Tuscany or, according to another account, at Carraria near Orvieto.
It was only after Marca had formally denied those propositions contained in De concordia which were displeasing to Rome that he was proclaimed in the consistory (Jan.
Besides other works he wrote Liberi arbitrii cum gratiae donis, divina praescientia, providentia, praedestinatione et reprobatione, concordia (4to, Lisbon, 1588); a commentary on the first part of the Summa of Thomas Aquinas (2 vols., fol., Cuenca, 1 593); and a treatise De justitia et jure (6 vols., 1 593160 9).
After his return to Vienna from Frankfort he edited Concordia (1820-1823), and began the issue of his Samtliche Werke.
It was not only significant that in the Concordia discordantium canonum ecclesiastical laws, whether from authentic or forged sources, were gathered together without regard to the existing civil law; of even greater eventual importance was the fact that Gratian taught that the contradictions of the canon law were to be reconciled by the same method as that used by theology to reconcile the discrepancies of doctrinal tradition.
The famous league of Lombard cities, styled Concordia in its acts of settlement, was now established.
Eberhard, duke and margrave of Rhaetia and Friuli, arranged the contents of the edict with its successive additamenta into a Concordia de singulis causis (829-832).