The death sentences were, however, commuted to imprisonment for life, and Settembrini was sent to the dungeons of San Stefano.
General Marina and several other officers were condemned to death by court martial, but Queen Christina commuted the sentence into penal servitude, and the ministers of war and marine retired from the cabinet in consequence.
Chios, Lesbos and Samos alone furnished ships; all the rest had commuted for a money payment.
The tithe war followed, and this most oppressive of all taxes was unfortunately commuted (1838) only in deference to clamour and violence.
The sentences of Grotius and Hoogerbeets were commuted to perpetual imprisonment.
The following year, at the instance of Great Britain and France, Ferdinand commuted the sentences of some of the political prisoners to exile.
On Josephine's entreaties, the emperor commuted the sentence for eight of the well-connected men among them; Cadoudal and others of lower extraction were executed on the 24th of June.
He clung to his right of regale, or enjoyment of the revenues of bishoprics during their vacancy, though it was at times commuted for a fixed payment.
The rebels at first demanded no more than that Richard should declare villeinage abolished, and that all feudal dues and services should be commuted for a rent of fourpence an acre.
For days the whole mechanism of civilized existence in Russia was at a standstill, all intercourse 4 Sazonov's sentence of twenty years' hard labour was commuted by Nicholas II.