Under the Lombards the town was the seat of dukes and counts; in the 12th and 13th centuries it formed a flourishing republic, busied in surrounding itself with walls (1229), controlling the Crostolo and constructing navigable canals to the Po, coining money of its own, and establishing prosperous schools.
Having effected his escape in a sweetmeat basket, he raised the standard of revolt, assumed the title of raja, and the prerogative of coining money in his own name.
The blanks are next softened by annealing, and are then thoroughly cleaned before being passed to the coining presses.
In 1505 it received the right of coining from Philip, son of the emperor Maximilian I.
The art of coining was introduced by the Greeks into Italy and other countries bordering on the Mediterranean and into Persia and India.
The right of coining money was bestowed on the town, and parliaments were several times held within its walls.
The coining of gold was the exclusive prerogative of the king; silver could be coined by the satraps, generals, independent communities and dynasts.
Immediately after his accession the shah Currenc.v decreed that the coining Of copper money should Difficulties.
The bans had the right of coining money stamped with their own effigies, and hence arose the name of bani (centimes).
Seigniorage was abolished for both gold and silver in 1666, when it was provided that no charge should be made at the Mint for coining and assaying.