Beyond these tombs, and the temples attached to them, there are very few fixed monuments; of Cheops and Pepi I.
In the pyramid of Cheops the blocks were all faced before building; but the later granite temple of Chephren and the pyramid of Mycerinus (Menkaura, Menkeure) show a system of building with an excess of a few inches left rough on the outer surface, which was dressed away when in position (P.T.
Dedicated statues to his predecessors of the Vth Dynasty who had probably showed their devotion to Ammon in a substantial manner, and Cheops of the IVth Dynasty is named in it.
But, immediately after, Cheops improved on this with a variation of less than 6 in.
Pottery models of offerings are found in the ashes, and these were probably the substitutes for sacrifices decreed by Cheops (Khufu) in his temple reforms. A great clearance of temple offerings was made now, or earlier, and a chamber full of them has yielded the fine ivory carvings and the glazed figures and tiles which show the splendid work of the Ist dynasty.
The noble statuette of Cheops in ivory, found in the stone chamber of the temple, gives the only portrait of this greatest ruler.
In Egyptian the name of Cheops (Chemmisor Chembisin Diodorus Siculus, Suphis in Manetho) is spelt Hwfw (Khufu), but the pronunciation, in late times perhaps Khoouf, is uncertain.
At length Mycerinus, son of Cheops and successor of Chephren, reopened the temples and, although he built the Third Pyramid, allowed the oppressed people to return to their proper occupations.
Following on a period of good rule and prosperity under Rhampsinitus, Cheops closed the temples, abolished the sacrifices and made all the Egyptians labour for his monument, working in relays of ioo,000 men every three months (see Pyramid).
In the XVIIIth, eventually received the honors of deification; and Hardadf under Cheops of the IVth Dynasty was little behind these two in the estimation of posterity.