General Slocum with Hooker's old Potomac troops garrisoned Atlanta, and every important post along the railway to Chattanooga was held in force.
This year saw the greatest successes and the heaviest reverses of the Union army, Gettysburg and Vicksburg and Chattanooga against Chancellorsville and Chickamauga.
Later in 1863, when the battle of Chattanooga brought the Federals to the borders of Georgia, Johnston was assigned to command the Army of Tennessee at Dalton, and in the early days of May 1864 the combined armies of the North under Sherman advanced against his lines.
From the end of September to the 24th of November the Army of the Cumberland was then invested in Chattanooga by the Confederates, whose position lay along Missionary Ridge from its north end near the river towards Rossville, whence their entrenchments extended westwards to Lookout Mountain, which dominates the whole ground, the Tennessee running directly beneath it.
After the close of the Civil War (1865) the iron resources of the state attracted renewed attention, particularly the brown and red hematites, and large and modern furnaces were erected in the Chattanooga district to reduce these ores.
But Grant would not move forward without Sherman, and the battle of Chattanooga was fought more than two months after Chickamauga.
Other institutions of higher learning, not under the control of the state, are: the University of Nashville (non-sect., 1785); Washington and Tusculum College (non-sect., 1794), at Greenville; Maryville College (Presbyterian, 1819), at Maryville; Cumberland University (Presbyterian, 1842), at Lebanon; Burritt College (non-sect., 1848), at Spencer; Hiwassee College (non-sect., 1849), at Sweetwater; Bethel College (Presbyterian 1850), at McKenzie; Carson and Newman College (Baptist, 1851), at Jefferson City; Walden University (Methodist, 1866), at Nashville; Fisk University (Congregational, 1866), at Nashville; University of Chattanooga (Methodist, 1867), at Chattanooga; University of the South (Protestant Episcopal, 1868), at Sewanee; King College (Presbyterian, 1869), at Bristol; Christian Brothers College (Roman Catholic, 1871), at Memphis; Knoxville College (United Presbyterian, 1875), at Knoxville; Milligan College (Christian, 1882), at Milligan; South-western Presbyterian College (1885), at Clarkville; and Lincoln Memorial University (non-sect., 1895), at Cumberland Gap.
Rosecrans with Chattanooga as his objective moved from Nashville upon General Braxton Bragg, who left the winter quarters he had established at Murfreesboro and met the Union army on Stone river immediately north of Murfreesboro, on the last day of December.
In 1863 north-west Georgia was involved in the Chattanooga campaign.
Hooker defeated Longstreet at Wauhatchie and revictualled Chattanooga (q.v.), and on the 23rd, 24th and 25th of November the three armies attacked Bragg's position.