All sugars are colourless solids or syrups, which char on strong heating; they are soluble in water, forming sweet solutions but difficultly soluble in alcohol.
Below each retort, and attached to it, is a cooler formed of thin sheet-iron, which receives the hot char as it passes from the retort, and at the bottom of the cooler is an arrangement of valves which permits a certain amount of char to drop out and no more.
Every care should be taken to burn and char the sod thoroughly without permitting the heap to blaze.
In the best-appointed refineries the whole of the work in connexion with the char is performed mechanically, with the exception of packing the filter cisterns with fresh char and emptying the spent and washed char on to the carrying bands.
With the fixed retorts these valves are worked from time to time by the attendant, but with revolving retorts they are worked continuously and automatically and allow from sixteen to twenty-four ounces of char to escape per minute from each cooler, and so make room in the retort above for a corresponding quantity to enter from the drying floor.
Irideus) has thriven in New Zealand, and the brook char of the same continent (S.
Each cistern is fitted kith a perforated false bottom, on which a blanket or specially woven cloth is placed, to receive the char which is poured in from the top, and packed as evenly as possible until the cistern is filled.
The reburnt and cooled char is collected and sent back to the char cisterns.
After the sweets have come away, cold water is passed through the char until no trace of lime or sulphate of lime is found in it; then a large manhole at the bottom of the cistern is opened, and the washed and spent char is removed.
Now if this state be supposed established in a frictionless fluid, the con sideration of internal friction would simply extend the char acteristics found at any spot to the neighbourhood, and there fore if the boundary were a sphere and so for a frictionless fluid an exception, it would cease to be an exception when we allow for viscosity.